A hybrid model that incorporates the best elements of multiple technologies will likely emerge as the surest way to deliver robust location services. The best combination will depend on the particulars of your space and the demands of your location-based services.
Pairing VLC and Bluetooth is a strong play for many applications. VLC's superior accuracy lets you tailor your services and messages to a very specific point, with little risk of mistakes. Bluetooth provides the return channel via which the user's smart device can communicate back to your location services for more information. Bluetooth also provides backup location that, while less accurate than VLC, can be used in adverse lighting or when the visitor has all of his or her devices securely tucked away.
On the other hand, WiFi's longer reach and greater capacity may be more appropriate for high-traffic settings like airports, sports arenas, and convention centers, where greater bandwidth and more reliable connections are important. Precise VLC data can then correct the coarser location data when the user engages with an app.
None of that, of course, is to mention the potential next kid on the block in terms of indoor location innovation: LiFi (light fidelity). LiFi is essentially VLC on steroids: a technology for enabling high-bandwidth communications through LED light without using any radio waves at all. LiFi is in its early days yet, and devices don't yet incorporate LiFi receivers. But they soon will, and LiFi promises to support the 5G roll-out that's coming in a couple of years.
Whatever the solution proves to be, your vision, as well as growing interest and demand from users, will guide the evolution and determine the success of your location services. In terms of implementation, though, a combined solution will almost certainly prove to be closest to ideal.